Digestive system surgery or gastro intestinal surgery, can be divided into upper GI surgery and lower GI surgery. Upper gastro intestinal surgery (upper GI surgery, like esophagus, stomach, duodenum and ileum) refers to a practice of surgery that focuses on the upper parts of the gastro intestinal tract. There are many operations relevant to the upper gastro intestinal tract that are best done only by those who keep constant practise, owing to their complexity.
The primary role of the digestive system is to help the body break down and absorb food. Also known as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, it includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine — also called the colon — rectum, and anus. Tiny glands in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine produce juices to help digest food. The digestive system also contains a layer of smooth muscle that moves food along the tract.
A partial gastrectomy is the removal of only part of the stomach. The remaining portion then continues with its digestive role. If the entire stomach is removed, the esophagus is connected directly to the small intestine, where digestion now begins. Patients must make significant dietary changes when a gastrectomy is performed.